The Budugs speaking in the Budug language live in the village Budug. The ethnic group of the Budugs is little studied in the historical and ethnographic respect. Elements of the Budugs’ culture, as well as their language, are very close to the Kriz’s. As to legends, Budug was founded in epoch of the Caucasian Albania. It is located in a remote place so that inhabitants could be rescued from attacks of Sasanidian armies (from the year of 267 to 651 a part of territories of northern Azerbaijan has been grasped by armies of Iranian state of the Sasanids).
The Budugs live separately as the roads leading into the settlement, are practicable only in summer season. Since ancient times the Budugs have been residing in this place. Near the village, in location Gulkhana and on the mountain Ambara, there were saved old caves evidencing ancient settling.
The word “budug” in the ancient Turkish language stands for “angry”, “violent”. They consider inhabitants of neighbor settlements in view of their pronounced characteristic features gave this name to them. The budugs name themselves “budad”.
For the first time the historic fact with regard to the Budugs is given in the treatise “Jame at-tavarikh” by Fazdullah Rashidaddin, the historian of the end of XIII and the beginning of XIV centuries. The author mentions that this dynasty comes from Tombin khan’s fifth son Bath Kulkin. In days of Chingiz khan their head was Huriday. When Chingiz khan battled against Tajiut’s dynasty, the Budugs and Chingiz khan were allies, and their armies were incorporated.
The first official document regarding the Budugs is a decree of 1607 published by governor of Sefevid state Shah Abbas I. Decrees of Kuba khans Hasanali-khan, Fatali-khan, Sheikh Ali-khan about Budug and the Budugs published in 18 to the early 19 centuries have a special value. And these decrees play a special role in studying of history of Budug and the Budugs. A.Bakihanov mentions Budug and the Budugs in his work “Gulustani-Iram”. In XIX century Budug was the center of administrative division mahal.
Historically the Budugs divide on big and small families, on dynasties. On a rural cemetery each dynasty has his place.
Prior to the beginning of XX century population of Budug made 2500 – 3500 persons. At present there live 200-300 persons in this settlement. In connection with social and economic problems the most part of the population has left this place.
The village Budug is located at the top of a small mountain plateau, at height up to 300 m from the level of the Kara-Chai River on the right coast of it. The site of Budug has many advantages of strategic character. Terraces, in the top part of a plateau, locate houses. Approximately on 2-3 km. above, some houses of inhabitants of the settlement named Kazhma Budug are scattered on abrupt slopes of the Alpine meadows.
The country Budug is small – about 200 inhabitants for only 35 houses. Houses are located very compactly because of small area of a mountain plateau. Houses are old, made of hewn stone; wooden beams as antiseismic linings are built into walls. Inhabitants are affable, though they are laconic.
Inhabitants of Budug observe their ethnic customs and ceremonies during celebrations, burials, family events. Carpets inside and oriental rugs weaved by their ancestors lay their houses. Now many national crafts are forgotten. During hard times many inhabitants marketed their ancient copper ware and other utensils to visited secondhand dealers. On greater holidays there are arranged ancient sports contests on struggle and other games in the open air.
There are only 2 springs in the settlement, whence water is carried to houses in copper and clay jugs.
The budugs live very modestly; they are engaged in agriculture in their kitchen gardens, in courtyards of own houses. The cattle breeding are developed; in the middle of summer all population leaves for the Alpine meadows on preparation cattle’s hay.
There is located a building of municipality, a school with 9 classes training in the village. The settlement has no objects of public catering. However it is possible to try very tasty local dishes by visiting local residents.
It is of a big interest the preserved ceramic conductor of milk laid in Budug in the old days from the village Gazhma situated above. According to local inhabitants, prior to the beginning of XX century the milk was passed through these ceramic pipes in Budug from Gazhma. In Budug the milk was processed and sent to the market.
As far as 10 km from Budug in a deep canyon of the Kara-Chai, on the unapproachable rock, there were saved the remains of an ancient fortress “Ediller”. In the same canyon of the Kara-Chai in the huge grottoes located on inaccessible rocky walls, the inhabitants of this country hid herds from attacks. In a valley of the Kara-Chai before the beginning of a canyon there is a sacred place “Pir Banovsha” on steep rocks in a cave.
Inside this cave there is a stalactites block, the huge sea cockleshell is as though soldered in. Nearby to Budug, on the opposite side of the Kara-Chai, there is located an ancient fortress and a funeral zoroastric tower on a huge rock. This tower construction is called “Daxma” or “Tower of silence”. This construction reminds figure 8 in the form of the basic tower and a buttress.
Near the settlement there is a beautiful waterfall named by local residents “Axjid” that stands for “water falling from height” in the Burgud language. From Budug it is possible to make round to sacred mountain “Chereke” (2100m below sea level), to the cave pir near the ruins of Kazhma Budug, to the canyon of the Kara-Chai with visiting ancient grottoes and sanctuary “Pir Banovsha”. Travelers can also make ascension on the rock, where “Daxma” (“Tower of silence”) is located.
There are no special institutions for tourists’ accommodation in Budug. Tourists can be placed in rural houses well furnished in a local style. Carpets and oriental rugs lay rooms.