The group of Tsahur population lives in this village. The Tsahurs (the tsahs) is one of the ancient people of Azerbaijan; their historical territory of dwelling is Kur-Alazan valley and upper reaches of the Samur River. Their self-name is yikiy. There are historical data of the XIX-th century, and also national legends about occurrence the Tsahurs in this territory. In an historical science there is an assumption of genetic communication of the Tsahurs with one of the Albanian tribes – jhigbamy. This circumstance testifies that the Albanian tribes, which area of moving included not only in modern territory of Azerbaijan, but also in southern Dagestan played the important role in domination of all ethnics occupying this territory of Azerbaijan. Nevertheless, it is known from historical sources that more than 400 years ago natives of the village Tsahur located in one of the gorges of the Samurchaj having passed to the western slopes of the Caucasian ridge, established the village Saribash existing up to now and representing greater historical-architectural value. Later the area of moving the Tsahurs increased.
The Tsahurs professes Islam, talk, basically, in the Tsahur language at home. The Tsahurs – Albanians having appeared in the center of formation and development of the state of the Caucasian Albania, the first have met Christianity, which early distribution to the Caucasian Albania was motivated by many factors.
The Gum village is located in 8 kilometers from the regional center Gakh, on foothills of the Main Caucasian Ridge (M.C.R.), in height of about 700 m above the sea level (.a.s.l..). A small mountain river Ardavachaj flows through the village Gum. Mountain neighboring slopes are covered with a dense wood. There is a set of wild-growing fruiters: medlar, a cherry plum, cornel, a wild apple-tree, a wild pear in the wood.
In the Gum village about 2000 persons live in almost 200 houses. There are historical monuments of an epoch of the Caucasian Albania, Islamic sunnit Mosque in the settlement. Two cult constructions of the V-th century A.C. concern to the Albanian monuments. This is Gum basil, which is now being restored. Picturesque ruins of Gum basils are surrounded with dense thicket of trees. On their background majestically look powerful stone columns and the arches laid out with an accurate masonry. Looking at this majestic construction, it is possible to perceive an essence of Albanian early medieval architecture: harmony of lines and faultless grace.
There is also located the cult Albanian construction, but much smaller sizes on the edge of Gum. At one time it was a quarter church of the ancient settlement. Functioning in the village sunnit Mosque is constructed in the XIX-th century. Once a week there is conducted a service spent by local mullah for the Azerbaijani population. People in settlement Gum are very hospitable. Peasants’ houses have private plots with orchards and kitchen gardens; winegrowing is cultivated. Here is made house wine from sorts of grapes “Isabella” and “American”.
(Orchard) (Wood road in Chinarli) (village Gum) (Territory of Balli Bulag in the vicinity of Garachaj) Peasants retained their tsahur wedding and funeral rites. In a household life ethnographic features of a community were saved. Old traditions of preparation of various dishes were also kept. In a daily life the Tsahurs eat traditional products – dairy products, honey, fruit, meat, flour products.
In 5 km from Gum, on the way through the village Chinarly, in lowland of the Garachaj River, there is a picturesque vacation spot by name “Balli Bulag”. Inhabitants from neighboring villages and other areas of Azerbaijan come here to have a rest.