They have been discovered in Gobustan for the first time in Azerbaijan. In 1939, the archeologist I. Jafarzadeh started to research the Gobustan petroglyphs. The fact that these pictures cover a vast historical period ranging from the 10th- 8th millennium BC to the Middle Ages makes them more valuable than other world collections of cave paintings. The pictures are mainly related to the human lifestyle. Collective labor, hunting, harvest, yalli dances, animal pictures, meals around a bonfire, women’s and men’s pictures, etc. Pictures of boats and the sun are compared to cave paintings found in Sweden, Urals and Egypt. The famous Norwegian traveler and scientist, Thor Heyerdahl, visited Gobustan several times and carried out research here. Comparing cave paintings found in Norway with those in Gobustan, Heyerdahl came to the conclusion that the ancestors of ancient Vikings reached Scandinavia by sailing from the Caspian coast by boats.