leyli macnun

Prominent Azerbaijani music theorists and Uzeyir Hajibeyov

Safi al-Din al-Urmawi (1271-1294) from South (Persian) Azerbaijan was a music theorist and composer. Al-Urmawi masterfully played the oud, and made ​​musical instruments the mugni a nuzha. Al-Urmavi was also the author of theoretical tractates of Azerbaijani music – “Kitab al-Adwar” (“The Book of Musical Modes”) and “Al-Risalah al-Sharafiyya”. A creative work of al-Urmavi, the […]


Ashug music

Musical poetic works of ashugs (ashug – from the word “eshg” – love) – singers – storytellers – poets are part of the professional art of oral tradition. The predecessors of ashugs in Azerbaijan were ozans. In Azerbaijan an ashug has long been called “El anasy” – “Mother Nation”), because he always expresses the feelings […]

Gosha nagara


Gosha-nagara is an Azerbaijani folk percussion musical instrument. The name in translation from Azerbaijani means “a few drums”. The gosha-nagara with its structure resembles two interconnected pot drums. The gosha-nagara is played with two wooden drumsticks. The gosha-nagara is a vital part of all folk ensembles and orchestras and also weddings and celebrations. It is […]

Azerbaijani nagara

Nagara is an Azerbaijani folk percussion musical instrument, a type of a drum. Translated from Arabic, the word “nagara” means “tapping”. The nagara, with its powerful sound dynamics, allows achieving different colour tones. Based on the dimensions, the Azerbaijani nagara is divided into large, medium and small drums. There is a “nagara” in the form […]


Gaval (daf) is an Azerbaijani folk percussion musical instrument. It is one of the few musical instruments that are still preserved in its original form. The gaval has a circular wooden frame with the skin of a sturgeon stretched over it. Sometimes, 60-70 copper or metal rings are mounted to the frame, which create a […]

Azerbaijani kanon

Azerbaijani kanon

Kanon is a plucked string musical instrument with a trapezoidal body. The Azerbaijani kanon has a flat wooden case of trapezoidal shape. The Azerbaijani kanon differs from the Turkish and Arabic. The upper part of the kanon consists of a wooden casing; the remaining part is covered with fish skin. 24 rows of triple strings […]



The instrument (from Persian “instrument”) is a stringed musical instrument of the lute type. It is a typical musical instrument of Azerbaijani ashugs. According to the “Encyclopaedia Iranica”, the instrument probably comes from shirvan tanbur, and even earlier gopuz, which is mentioned in the epos “Book of Dede Korkut”. The saz is mentioned in all […]


Azerbaijani kamancha is an Azerbaijani folk bowed string musical instrument. It is a necessary part of professional ensembles of traditional music – Azerbaijani mugham, and is also used as a solo instrument. The Azerbaijani kamancha consists of a body and neck with a tip, which passes through the inside of the body out and connects […]


Balaban is a woodwind musical instrument with a double reed. It is a tube with 9 holes. An example of balaban, made from a bone, was found in a grave from the 1 century BC in Mingachevir. The name of the instrument comes from the words “bala” which means smaller and “ban” which means a […]


Zurna – musical instrument

Zurna – (literally “festive flute”) is a woodwind musical instrument with a double reed. It is a wooden tube with a neck and a few (typically 8-9) holes (one of which is located on the side opposite the others). During archaeological excavations, four zurna examples made ​​from deer antlers were found in a grave of […]